.…Building – Executive Summary
This document presents spatial data specification for European data related to the theme “Building”. Finding a common definition for buildings in Europe is challenging. Some entities may be considered as buildings in one country, and not in another one. The definition proposed in this document is the following: A building is a construction above and/or underground which is intended or used for the shelter of humans, animals, things, the production of economic goods or the delivery of services and that refers to any structure permanently constructed or erected on its site.
Relations with other themes
Several other INSPIRE themes describe real world constructions (like network infrastructures). Some of them could be seen as buildings depending on the point of view (like for example a bridge). This document mainly focuses on the physical description of real world entities seen as buildings. It also includes other constructions required for environmental applications that are not already described by other themes. An important characteristic of buildings is their capability to provide services. Because this information is covered by other INSPIRE themes related to facilities (Utility and governmental services, production and industrial facilities, agricultural and aquacultural facilities), this document provides only a simplified classification of building services. Furthermore, building theme classes share relations with addresses, cadastral parcels and geographical names themes.
Existing data and standards
There are nowadays many databases describing buildings. These databases are mainly produced by well identified organisations, usually cadastral and mapping agencies of each member state. Most of these data are vector data, mainly 2D, with comparable levels of details. In order to encourage the publication of these data as INSPIRE data, the specifications of these existing data have been considered. Future need for building data, like for example for 3D representations, have also been considered. Finally, existing standards on buildings, mainly related to specific thematic aspects, have been integrated within this data specification, when appropriate. Main concepts of the the OGC standard CityGML have been adapted and adopted to design the various profiles of the data model of theme Building.
Building data are often base data required for thematic applications. The main ones identified for this data specification document are census and statistics, risks management, environment, urban expansion, infrastructures management and mapping. The intention of this data specification is to cover most of these use cases, depending also on the existing data.
This data specification addresses the Noise Directive, the Air Quality Directive, the Energy Performance of Building Directive and the Population and Housing Census Directive. The Flood Directive and the project of Soil Directive have also been taken into account.
The main objects represented in the data model are buildings, other constructions, building parts and building units. These objects can be characterised by geometrical representations (2D, 2.5D or 3D, with different levels of detail). Temporal attributes allow to describe their life cycle (construction, renovation and demolition dates). Buildings are characterised by an attribute describing their physical aspect and another one related to their use. Many other thematic attributes have been included. In order to improve the usability of the data model, four profiles have been defined:
- TheCore2Dprofilecontainstheelements(classesandattributes)themostcommonlyusedand present in existing datasets. Geometrical representations are various 2D representations, with a possible elevation value. The information included in this profile is intended to be part of the implementing rules.
- The Extended2D profile is a semantic extension of the previous one with additional attributes (material of construction, etc.), classes (building units) and references to other data (like cadastral data).
- The Core3D profile is has same semantic as the core2D profile and enables simple 3D representations.
- Finally, the Extended3D profile is an extension of the core2D profile to rich 3D representations at different levels of details. It also includes the possibility to represent facade textures.