BIM for Landscape Architecture

BIM for Landscape Architecture
IFC for Landscape - Example used in Revit

Saturday, November 3, 2012

OGC City Geography Markup Language (CityGML) Encoding Standard

…0.1 Motivation
An increasing number of cities and companies are building virtual 3D city models for different application areas like urban planning, mobile telecommunication, disaster management, 3D cadastre, tourism, vehicle and pedes- trian navigation, facility management and environmental simulations. Furthermore, in the implementation of the European Environmental Noise Directive (END, 2002/49/EC) 3D geoinformation and 3D city models play an important role.
In recent years, most virtual 3D city models have been defined as purely graphical or geometrical models, neglecting the semantic and topological aspects. Thus, these models could almost only be used for visualisation purposes but not for thematic queries, analysis tasks, or spatial data mining. Since the limited reusability of models inhibits the broader use of 3D city models, a more general modelling approach had to be taken in order to satisfy the information needs of the various application fields.
CityGML is a common semantic information model for the representation of 3D urban objects that can be shared over different applications. The latter capability is especially important with respect to the cost-effective sustain- able maintenance of 3D city models, allowing the possibility of selling the same data to customers from different application fields. The targeted application areas explicitly include city planning, architectural design, tourist and leisure activities, environmental simulation, mobile telecommunication, disaster management, homeland securi- ty, real estate management, vehicle and pedestrian navigation, and training simulators.
CityGML is designed as an open data model and XML-based format for the storage and exchange of virtual 3D city models. It is implemented as an application schema of the Geography Markup Language 3 (GML3), the extendible international standard for spatial data exchange and encoding issued by the Open Geospatial Consor- tium (OGC) and the ISO TC211. CityGML is based on a number of standards from the ISO 191xx family, the Open Geospatial Consortium, the W3C Consortium, the Web 3D Consortium, and OASIS.
CityGML defines the classes and relations for the most relevant topographic objects in cities and regional mod- els with respect to their geometrical, topological, semantical, and appearance properties. “City” is broadly defined to comprise not just built structures, but also elevation, vegetation, water bodies, “city furniture”, and more. Included are generalisation hierarchies between thematic classes, aggregations, relations between objects, and spatial properties. CityGML is applicable for large areas and small regions and can represent the terrain and 3D objects in different levels of detail simultaneously. Since either simple, single scale models without topology and few semantics or very complex multi-scale models with full topology and fine-grained semantical differenti- ations can be represented, CityGML enables lossless information exchange between different GI systems and users…

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